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لقاح فايزر-بيونتيك المضاد لكوفيد-19

لقاح فايزر-بيونتيك المضاد لكوفيد-19: ما الذي تحتاج لمعرفته

لقاح فايزر-بيونتيك. قد تكون اللقاحات الواقية من فيروس كورونا السبيل للتخلص من هذه الجائحة لذلك توصي منظمة الصحة العالمية والجهات المختصة بضرورة تلقي اللقاح ولقد ظهرت عدة لقاحات واحد منهم هو اللقاح الأمريكي الألماني فايزر-بيونتك Pfizer- BioNTech  ، فما هو هذا اللقاح وهل يناسب جميع الفئات العمرية ؟ وهل هناك أعراض عند أخذه ؟

لقاح فايزر-بيونتك طوّرته شركة “فايزر” الأميركية وشريكتها “بيونتك” الألمانية، يعمل على تقنية “الحمض النووي الريبوزي المرسال” (messenger RNA) وهو عبارة عن جزيء يخبر خلايا الجسم بما يجب أن تقوم به . يتم حقن هذا اللقاح في الجسم، ويقوم بإدخال هذا الجزيء الذي يتحكم في آلية لتصنيع مستضد معين لفيروس كورونا “سنبلة” (spike)، وهو طرف مميز  موجود على سطحه ويسمح له بالالتصاق بالخلايا البشرية لاختراقها. وسيتم بعد ذلك اكتشاف هذه السنبلة من قبل الجهاز المناعي الذي بدوره سينتج الأجسام المضادة، التي تبقى في الجسم لفترة زمنية معينة.

مكونات اللقاح (منظمة الصحة العالمية)
مكونات اللقاح (منظمة الصحة العالمية)

ما مكونات اللقاحات؟ 

أشارت منظمة الصحة العالمية والدراسات التي تم نشرها بأن اللقاح يتكون من  شدف “قطع” وهي عبارة عن قطع صغيرة جدا من الكائن الحي المسبب للمرض

  • المستضد (Antigen): يقوم بتوليد  استجابة مناعية للجسم ، وهو عبارة عن جزء صغير من الكائن الحي المسبب للمرض مثل البروتين أو السكر، أو قد يكون الكائن الحي بأكمله في شكله الموهن .
  • المواد الحافظة (Preservatives)، والتي تحول دون تلوث اللقاح بعد فتح القارورة .
  • المواد المثبتة (Stabilizers)، والتي بدورها تمنع حدوث أي تفاعل كيميائي داخل اللقاح وتحول دون التصاق مكونات اللقاح بقارورة اللقاح.
  • المواد الفاعلة بالسطح (Surfactants)، والتي بدورها تحافظ على الامتزاج الجيد لمكونات اللقاح،وتمنع ترسب العناصر وتكتلها.
  • المواد المتبقية (Residuals)، وهي عبارة عن كميات قليلة جدا من مختلف المستحضرات المستخدمة أثناء تصنيع اللقاح
  • المواد المخففة (Diluent)، وهي سائل يستخدم لتخفيف لقاح، كي يصل لمستوى التركيز الصحيح قبل استخدامه. والمادة المخففة الأكثر استخدامافي اللقاح هي الماء النقي المعقم .
  • المواد المساعدة (Adjuvant) ،التي بدورها تحسّن الاستجابة المناعية للقاح .

لقد أثبتت الدراسات بأن اللقاح فعال لدى الأشخاص المصابين بحالات مرضية مختلفة كارتفاع ضغط الدم و السكري و الربو والأمراض الرئوية وأمراض الكبد والكلى، بالإضافة إلى الحالات المزمنة المستقرة .

هل يجب تطعيم الحوامل؟

مازالت بعض الدراسات والبيانات قيد البحث والتحليل بشأن تطعيم المرأة الحامل ولكن أشارت منظمة الصحة العالمية بأنه إذا كانت فوائد تطعيم المرأة الحامل تفوق المخاطر  فإنه يمكن تطعيم الحوامل المعرّضات بشدة لخطر الإصابة بعدوى فيروس مرض كوفيد-19 مثل العاملات الصحيات أو اللاتي يعانين من حالات مرضية مصاحبة تزيد من خطر إصابتهن بالمرض ، على أن يتشاورن بهذا الشأن مع الجهة المعنية بتقديم الرعاية الصحية لهن.


لقاح فايزر-بيونتيك
لقاح فايزر-بيونتيك

الفئات التي لا ينبغي أن تتلقّى التطعيم: 

أشارت منظمة الصحة العالمية بأنه لا يجب إعطاء اللقاح للأشحاص الذين لديهم تفاعلات تحسسية لأي مكون من مكونات اللقاح لذلك لم يتم اختبار اللقاح غلى الأطفال الذين تقل أعمارهم عن 16 عاماً فلا يجب إعطائهم اللقاح حتى وإن كانوا اكثر تعرض للإصابة بالفيروس .


ما هي فوائد أخذ لقاح كوفيد 19؟

  • الوقاية من الإصابة  بكورونا “كوفيد 19 ” أو من الإصابة بمرض خطير أو الوفاة
  • يحد من نقل وانتشار وتناسخ الفيروس بين الاخرين .
  • يساهم في المناعة الجماعية (ما يُسمى مناعة القطيع) .

لقاح فايزر-بيونتيك
لقاح فايزر-بيونتيك

مدى فعالية اللقاح : 

تبدأ فعالية أخذ اللقاح ولمس الأثر الوقائي للقاح في التكوّن بعد 12 يوماً من أخذ الجرعة الأولى، غير أن اكتساب حماية كاملة يتطلب تلقي جرعتين من اللقاح، كما أوصت منظمة الصحة العالمية  بأنه يجب أن تتراوح الفترة الفاصلة بين تلقي الجرعتين من 21 إلى 28 يوماً.أبضاً أثبت الدراسات بأن لقاح فايزر-بيونتيك المضاد لكوفيد-19 فعّال بنسبة 95٪ ضد  فيروس مرض كوفيد-19.


منظمة الصحة العالمية

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